What Happened to Infant Sleep?

Photo via https://www.isisonline.org.uk/image-archive/images/

In many societies around the world, babies sleep next to their mothers. There are no cribs, sleep coaches, sleep training books, baby monitors, swings or other devices to manage a baby’s sleep. They aren’t needed. So what happened to infant sleep in Western culture?

It’s complicated. Sleep in general has undergone a radical transformation over the last two hundred years or so, primarily in response to the availability of artificial light and industrialization. Instead of being guided by the rhythms of the sun and the seasons, many people now stay up late into the night either for entertainment or work.

In times past, sleep was often not the straight through the night phenomenon Western culture considers normal today. There was a “first” and a “second” sleep, broken by a period of quiet wakefulness when people might read or pray, tend the fire, make love, talk quietly or the like before going back to sleep. Daytime naps were common.

However, this sort of rhythm did not suit the demands of factory owners or slaveholders. Industry demanded a long, sometimes irregular work schedule and working slaves to exhaustion served the plantation system.

Emancipation and labor laws have resulted in vast improvements to people’s lives in Western society. Yet sleep is still expected to take place during a single period, usually at night, for those lucky enough to have access to safe, comfortable housing.

In addition, sleep was once a social event not just for families – even total strangers would share beds when they traveled. Less desirable were tenements and slave cabins, where many people crowded together at night made comfortable sleep difficult. Eventually, though, both central heating and a middle class with a higher standard of living made separate bedrooms possible for many.

Other factors also contributed to the rise of separate sleep. Doctors warned of health risks from breathing the air of others and Victorian religious leaders preached of moral dangers (even today, sex is still equated with “sleeping together”), insisting on the privacy and sanctity of the marital bed.

These and other “experts,” who were overwhelmingly white and male, began to assert authority over the traditional wisdom of women in raising children. Most valued independence and self-sufficiency, and warned of the dangers of spoiling children with too much affection. Authorities on childcare also favored formula feeding, a technological innovation that not only allowed parents to feed their infant “scientifically,” but also allowed someone other than the mother to care for a baby at night.

Sadly, one additional factor that may have contributed to the rise of solitary infant sleep were confessions from starving mothers of smothering their infants at night so they would have enough food for their other children. In sermons, horrified priests urged banning infants from the parents’ bed.

So, for a variety of reasons, much of modern Western society has come to believe that solitary infant sleep is normal and beneficial. Parents are told to use cry it out or other extinction sleep training methods to enforce this cultural construct.

Photo by Min An from Pexels

Yet other cultures consider putting a baby in a separate room – or even in a separate bed – not only strange, but akin to child abuse. Contrary to warnings from Western sleep “experts,” these cultures generally produce independent, well-adjusted children and young adults. We will explore the family sleep habits of some of these cultures in the next What Babies Need.

 

 

Ball, H., McKenna, J., Gettler, L. (2007) Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. “Mother–Infant Cosleeping, Breastfeeding and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: What Biological Anthropology Has Discovered About Normal Infant Sleep and Pediatric Sleep Medicine.”

 

Ekirch, A. Roger. (2005) At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past.

 

McKenna, J. (2007) Sleeping with Your Baby: A Parent’s Guide to Cosleeping.

 

McKenna, J., Smith, E., Trevathan, W. eds. (2008) Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives.

 

Pitman, T., Smith, L., West, D., Wiessinger, D. (2014) Sweet Sleep: Nighttime and Naptime Strategies for the Breastfeeding Family. La Leche League International.

 

Reiss, Benjamin. (2017) Wild Nights: How Taming Sleep Created Our Restless World.

 

 

https://www.isisonline.org.uk/

 

https://cosleeping.nd.edu/

Babies Need to Sleep with Someone

“It is a primitive need of the child to have close and warm contact with another person’s body while falling asleep…. The infant’s biological need for the caretaking adult’s constant presence is disregarded in our Western culture, and children are exposed to long hours of solitude owing to the misconception that it is healthy for the young to sleep … alone.”
-Anna Freud, daughter of Sigmund Freud

Photo via https://www.isisonline.org.uk/image-archive/images/

Where should babies sleep? In Western cultures, like those in the US and Europe, the answer is usually in a crib, by itself, often in another room. But why? Two adults in a romantic relationship often share a bed – how does it make sense that a tiny, vulnerable person has to sleep alone?

In other parts of the world, this is not even a question – babies sleep with someone. Even in Western cultures the idea of solitary infant sleep has only become expected during the last hundred years or so.

Photo via Good Free Photos

To understand biologically normal sleep for human babies, we need to first look at our cousins in the animal kingdom. Some mammals give birth to atricial infants after a short gestation – deaf, hairless and sightless, they develop rapidly in nests or a pouch. Others are precocial, well developed and able to stand or hold on to their mothers almost immediately after birth.

Like many primates, humans are mostly precocial, but also have atricial traits like not being able to walk or cling, mainly due to being born with only 25% of their brain capacity (for more information, see Babies Need to Be Held, 10-14-17). Primate infants even rely on contact with their caregivers to regulate their heart rate, temperature and breathing.

All land mammal mothers sleep close to their babies, although some, like deer and rabbits, have high fat milk that allows them to hide their babies for long periods while they forage for food. The young of these “feed and leave” species don’t cry or defecate in mother’s absence so as not to draw the attention of predators.

Photo via Good Free Photos

However, contact/carry species like marsupials and primates (including humans) do eliminate spontaneously and cry when separated from their mothers. This, along with low fat milk that necessitates frequent feeding, means that these babies need to be kept close at all times, including at night. A human baby who wakes up and cries to protest being alone does so for a very good reason – survival!

In addition to physical regulation, primate infants also need contact for psychological wellbeing. This was first demonstrated by Harry Harlow with his famous experiment in which rhesus monkey babies separated from their mothers clung to a cloth covered “surrogate mother” rather than a wire one that dispensed food. More recent research points to a spike in cortisol in babies left to cry without being comforted, which could effect an infant’s developing brain.

From studying primates and the few remaining hunter-gatherer cultures, anthropologists have concluded that it is biologically normal for a human baby to sleep next to another person, usually it’s mother. So how did solitary infant sleep come to be considered normal and desirable in Western societies? We will explore that in the next What Babies Need.

Liedloff, J. (1986) The Continuum Concept: In Search of Happiness Lost.

McKenna, J. (2007) Sleeping with Your Baby: A Parent’s Guide to Cosleeping.

Pitman, T., Smith, L., West, D., Wiessinger, D. (2014) Sweet Sleep: Nighttime and Naptime Strategies for the Breastfeeding Family. La Leche League International.

Small, M. F. (1999). Our babies, ourselves: How biology and culture shape the way we parent.

 

Ball, H., McKenna, J., Gettler, L. (2007) Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. “Mother–Infant Cosleeping, Breastfeeding and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: What Biological Anthropology Has Discovered About Normal Infant Sleep and Pediatric Sleep Medicine.”

Freud, A. (1965). Normality and Pathology in Childhood.

Fuentes, A., Gray, P., Narvaez, D., McKenna, J., Valentino, K. eds. (2014) Ancestral Landscapes in Human Evolution: Culture, Childrearing and Social Wellbeing.

Gettler, L, McKenna, J. (2007) Textbook of Human Lactation. “Mother-Infant Cosleeping with Breastfeeding in the Western Industrialized Context: A Bio-Cultural Perspective.”

Kendall-Tackett, K., Middlemiss, W. (2014) The Science of Mother-Infant Sleep: Current Findings on Bedsharing, Breastfeeding, Sleep Training, and Normal Infant Sleep.

McKenna, J., Smith, E., Trevathan, W. eds. (2008) Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives.

Tomori, C. (2017) Nighttime Breastfeeding: An American Cultural Dilemma.

 

https://www.isisonline.org.uk/

https://cosleeping.nd.edu/

Bed-Sharing and Co-Sleeping: Research Overview